Adverbs (副詞) modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs in order to add additional meaning and nuance.
We already discussed how to modify nouns in the adjectives lesson to modify nouns, but what about adjectives?
Let's look at an example first:
I ate the meal quickly
In the above sentence, the verb 食べる is modified with the adverb 早く, which adds additional information to the verb (i.e. eating becomes eating quickly).
Adverbs can appear anywhere in the sentence, but before the verb they are modifying.
Most adverbs are derived from adjectives using simple conjugation rules (i.e. learning the adjective gives us the adverb with no additional effort), other adverbs are standalone words that need to be memorized separately.
All adjectives can be used as adverbs, think of it as using adjectives for modifying verbs rather than nouns. By memorizing adjectives, the corresponding adverb form can be derived using simple conjugation rules, let's look at the rules first:
Let's look at some common adverbs derived from い-adjectives:
Conjugating is very simple as we just need to replace the last い with く.
And some adverbs derived from な-adjectives:
As per the conjugation table earlier, the same word is used but instead of following it up with な we use に instead.
There are also many adverbs that are not derived from adjectives, but are standalone words. These adverbs can be used without appending any suffix, etc.
Let's look at an example:
I don't want to go to Disneyland at all.
We can split divide adverbs based on how they modify other words.
There are several general categories:
Let's go over each category and look at some common example adverbs.
Indicates when something happened or will happen.
|still; (not) yet
Describes how frequent an event occurs.
Describe the degree or scale of an action.
|(not) at all
Describe how likely an action is performed.
Describe the way an action is carried out.
Describe where the action takes place.